Hair transplantation (or transplant, sometime called as implantation or plantation) is a surgical process that engages the moving individual hair follicles from one part of the body (the donor site) to bald or balding parts (the recipient site). Generally hair on back (occipital) region of the head does not fall as they are genetically resistance to baldness. Hair transplant has its base on this concept only, i.e. if hair roots are taken from the back of head region and are transplanted to the area of baldness, they will, after a short period of unpleasant look it continue to grow as natural hair on recipient site. Since the new transplanted hair is from one's own body, there is no risk of rejection and it will grow naturally with time and one can shampoo, trim or even shave it.
Initially hair transplant was used to treat male pattern baldness only, but now, hair transplant technique is also used to restore eyelashes, eyebrows, beard hair, and the hair from beard, chest, and pubic reason can be used as donor hair. Hair transplant technique can also be used to fill in scars caused by accidents or any kind of surgery.
Hair naturally grows in follicles having groupings of 1 to 4 hair roots; today’s most advanced techniques transplant these naturally occurring 1–4 hair called "follicular units" in their natural grouping to bald place. Modern hair transplantation can attain a natural hair on planted are. Donor hair can be collected in two very different ways making two kinds of hair graft harvesting techniques which is famous in India. That can be summarised as under:
1. FUT (Follicular Unit Transplantation) or Strip Harvesting – In this technique a strip of scalp is removed under local anaesthesia, the wound is then sutured back together by stitches and this piece of scalp tissue is then cut in to small pieces of tissue called grafts. This method leaves a linear scar in the donor area, which get covered by a patient’s hair as they grow. The recovery period is around 2 weeks and will require the stitches to be removed by medical personnel.
2. FUE (Follicular Unit Extraction) Harvesting – In this technique of graft harvesting individual follicles of hair are removed under local anaesthesia; this micro removal uses tiny punches of having diameter ranging between 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm. Each follicle is then reinserted into the recipient site or hair thinning area using a micro blade. Since this is single follicles therefore no large amount of tissue is removed there is no any kind of visible scars or post-surgery pain, with no stitches to be removed.
Hair transplantation is an outpatient procedure done under local anaesthesia. After Post-operative overnight bandage is used. Patient can go home the same day. Both techniques are practised by surgeon today in India but FUE getting popularity even it is costly then strip technique. We do not practise fut - cut technique in our centre in India